Why should we build our green electricity certificate trading mechanism?
April 22, the National Energy Board issued a "notice on the establishment of coal-fired power units with the relevant requirements of non-hydro renewable energy quota Examination System" (Draft) (hereinafter referred to as "Notice"), "notice" of the core content is the establishment of green electricity certificate trading mechanism. What is a green electricity certificate trading mechanism? Why build green electricity certificate trading mechanism? How to implement green power trading mechanism? Reference to the situation overseas green electricity certificates, combined with China's renewable energy development situation and the difficulties faced, Qin Haiyan on these issues to talk about his views.
What is a green electricity certificate trading mechanism?
Renewable energy green power certificate is a tradable currency can deliver for the certificate is renewable energy generation way of confirmation of an indicator.
Green card can be used as stand-alone renewable energy power measurement tools, can be used as a tool for the transfer of trading in renewable energy and other environmental benefits of positive externalities ownership is to encourage renewable energy development, environmental benefits of renewable energy to compensate a policy mechanism.
Currently, more than 20 countries the United States, Japan, Germany, Britain, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Canada, Australia and the implementation of green electricity certificate trading system. Successful international experience shows that the implementation of green electricity certificate trading through market-oriented approach, given the production of clean energy power generation enterprises necessary economic compensation is an effective measure for renewable energy industry to achieve sustainable and healthy development of a market-oriented subsidies mechanism.
Many people think that renewable energy more expensive than thermal power, in fact, this comparison is not fair, because the price does not reflect its full thermal power costs. According to the authoritative estimates, coupled with environmental pollution and health damage and other negative external costs, the full cost of the existing thermal power is 2-3 times the price of thermal power. However, in the thermal power external costs are not internalized, the renewable energy market is currently not possible to compete with thermal power. In this case, the development of renewable energy sources to rely on subsidies to support - to be exact renewable energy positive externalities kind of compensation value. The establishment of green certificate trading system, and for thermal power companies to purchase green certificates, which is the environmental cost internalization of external means.
Why build green electricity certificate trading mechanism?
According to the 2006 entry into force of the implementation of the "Renewable Energy Law", the Chinese government formulated the policy of subsidies for renewable energy power "fixed price", the implementation of the policy, which greatly promoted the development of China's renewable energy industry. Ten years down, both renewable electricity installed capacity, wind or solar power and other renewable energy technology industry, our walk in the world.
Currently, renewable energy tariff higher than the average of the difference of conventional energy generation tariff by nationwide sales of electricity renewable energy tariff levied additional raise. From 2006 to the present, China's renewable energy tariff additional criteria increased from the initial 0.1 cents per kilowatt-hour to 1.9 cents, but the price increase is always an additional standard for renewable energy development lags behind demand. By the end of 2015, subsidies for renewable energy funding gap accumulated over 400 billion yuan.
The reason for this aspect of subsidies for renewable energy as an important source of additional tariff, currently imposed limit standard is not enough, even if increased from 1.5 cents per kilowatt-hour to 1.9 cents, still unable to meet the needs of subsidies. Collection Standard complicated procedures each adjustment cycle is very long, there is a big controversy.
And partly because tariff surcharge levied up on time and in full, many owned electricity power plants, and some provinces and municipalities are not required to be turned over, resulting in income that does not come close. These problems led to long-term subsidies in arrears, especially for photovoltaic power plants, because the subsidy funds about 70% of the total price subsidy arrears of income can not cover the principal and interest has led to nearly three years of construction of these PV projects are facing funding strand breaks risk.
Secondly, the current way of subsidies, with the power system reform progress, but also need to make a change. In accordance with the power to change the direction of government pricing tariffs will be phased out, to form a market-based price formation mechanism, and now government to develop thermal power benchmark price will be phased out. Therefore, the current way of subsidies in thermal power benchmark price based on the need to make the appropriate adjustments. If you can not effectively solve the problem of subsidies, it will seriously affect the incentives to invest, ultimately affect our response to climate change independent commitment to achieve emission reduction targets and waste a golden opportunity to photovoltaic wind power industry development. It is a rising, this may be the leading global strategic emerging industries may therefore die.
Combined with international experience and China's development of the situation, the implementation of power generation companies in the completion of emission reduction targets and the development of renewable energy obligations and responsibilities, the establishment of green electricity certificate trading system requiring coal-fired power plants, coal-fired generating capacity according to the actual purchase a certain percentage of green power certificates. Such renewable energy power projects by gaining market price, plus the central government subsidies for green certificate trading fixed income and other three parts, to get a reasonable level of profit. With the decline in the future technological advances, the cost of fixed subsidies could be phased out.
This market-based renewable power subsidies, subsidies not only to solve the funding source and effective way to improve the efficiency of subsidies and through market transactions, renewable energy can make use of the advantages of a low marginal cost, to achieve priority access. At the same time, because of the increase of renewable energy generating capacity assessment requirements, we can encourage enterprises to continuously improve the management efficiency and technological level. So as to promote healthy and sustainable renewable energy development.
How to implement green power trading mechanism?
First, to determine the coal-fired thermal power non-hydro renewable energy quota standards.
After calculation, to ensure that our commitment to the 2020 non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to 15% of the target, except for the contribution of nuclear power and hydropower by 2020, non-water renewable energy consumption must reach 650 billion kilowatts when the above. By then China's total electricity consumption of around 6.7 trillion kwh, a non-water renewable energy share of electricity generating capacity in the whole society of more than 9%. 2020 coal-fired thermal power generation of about 41000-43000 kwh, renewable energy accounts for about 15% of coal-fired units generating capacity.
This is the "notice" provisions, "2020, all coal-fired power plants (project legal person, including captive power plant) to assume the proportion of non-hydro renewable energy generation quotas and thermal power generation capacity should reach more than 15%" of logic in accordance with.
National energy authorities will index each year until 2020 to implement the decomposition. (In addition, according to the current different renewable energy use the average number of hours estimated to achieve non-hydro renewable energy generation capacity reached 650 billion kwh over 2020 wind power installed capacity to reach 250 million kilowatts, solar power installed capacity of 150 million kilowatts, raw biomass power generation installed capacity of 015 million kilowatts.)
Range of green electricity certificate issued
"Notice" provisions, and of green electricity certificate issued by the object non-hydro renewable energy sources, including wind power, solar power (photovoltaic, solar thermal power generation), biomass, geothermal power, tidal power and other new energy sources power projects. Which does not include distributed photovoltaic power generation projects.
Distributed PV is an important direction of development and utilization, is also an important fulcrum and power system accelerator national poverty reduction policies. Distributed PV project can achieve self-occupied, the nearest consumptive, continue to adopt the policy to give a fixed subsidy based on the current selling price, to better promote the development of distributed PV.
Trading green electricity certificates
"Notification" of coal-fired power units to achieve non-hydro renewable energy quota ways and means were clear: coal-fired power plants can be self-built non-hydro renewable energy projects or purchase renewable energy electricity green certificates manner, complete quota assessment indicators. At present China's major power generation groups have basically wind power, solar power and other renewable energy power business segment, by the Company or a subsidiary of renewable energy power generation projects to achieve internal balance. If the self-built part is still not fully meet the requirements of the quota or proportion of renewable energy companies do not service, you can purchase a certificate in green certificate trading platform way to complete the quota.
ED also undertake assessment and punishment mechanism subject to quota provisions. National Energy Board and each agency is responsible for an annual assessment of thermal power units and supervision. Did not complete the required quota, ordered deadline for completion of overdue completed, canceled the company's power generation license. Even through the economic measures the severity of the punishment, which also reflects the determination of governments to fulfill emission reduction commitments.